Rhinitis is the most common of all medical complaints, affecting almost everyone at some time. Brief episodes are usually caused by a viral infection (eg, the common cold). Chronic rhinitis is often caused by allergies, and it may also be caused by certain drugs, some medical conditions and unidentifiable factors. Rhinitis is classified as allergic or nonallergic and is generally divided into seasonal or perennial types.비염한의원
Allergic rhinitis is the most common type. Seasonal hay fever is one form of allergic rhinitis, and it is usually caused by pollen. Perennial allergic rhinitis is usually caused by dust mites, pet hair or dander, cockroaches, mold and other irritants. People who have perennial rhinitis also often have asthma. Perennial rhinitis is also a risk factor for developing sinusitis.
Allergens can trigger a runny nose, sneezing, itching and itchy eyes. A person with nasal allergy symptoms should see an otolaryngologist or allergist, who will perform a detailed history and physical exam and, if necessary, refer the patient to a laboratory for allergy testing (blood or skin). Antihistamines taken by mouth or as a nasal spray can help control the symptoms of a runny nose. However, older antihistamines cause drowsiness and many have other side effects, particularly in older people. Newer medications such as mast-cell stabilizers, which act as antihistamines but have fewer side effects, are safer for long-term use.
Nasal corticosteroid sprays decrease inflammation in the nose and reduce symptoms of both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. They are safe to take on a long-term basis and can be prescribed by your doctor. Immunotherapy can be an excellent treatment for allergic rhinitis and can significantly improve quality of life. It is available through an otolaryngologist or through some allergy clinics.
Nonallergic rhinitis is more difficult to treat and can be caused by structural problems in the nose such as a deviated septum, which can narrow your nasal passages. It can be triggered by irritants such as smoke, perfumes, chemical fumes and other odors. It can also be triggered by medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen. In addition, a change in the weather can trigger nonallergic rhinitis.
The diagnosis of rhinitis is based on the history and physical examination. A doctor can usually determine whether it is allergic or nonallergic rhinitis, but sometimes a blood test or skin tests are needed to make the diagnosis. Medications such as steroid nasal sprays, antihistamines and mast-cell stabilizers can be used to treat the symptoms of a runny nose. Other treatments include avoiding the irritants that trigger your symptoms, taking medications to control the allergy and/or using immunotherapy. Occupational rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is caused by exposure to chemicals or fumes in the workplace. It is more likely to affect women than men, and it is most common in people who are 20 or older. Unlike allergic rhinitis, there is no evidence that a person with occupational rhinitis will develop asthma with ongoing exposure.라경찬한의원